Jaigarh fort is one of the famous monuments which was built in the 18th century. This fort is located in the Amer City which was ruled by the Kachawahas from the early 10th century. Jaigarh fort is also known as “The Fort of the Victory” which was constructed by Sawai Jai Singh II and Mirza Raja Jai Singh in 1726. This fort is located at an approximate height of 500 feet on the top of the hill named as ‘CheelKaTeela’ or Hill of Eagles. The fort can also be reached on foot. The fort was built to safeguard Amber palace and a three kilometer fortification wall surrounds the Jai Garh Fort. Jaigarh Fort kept the treasures of the royal family of the Maharaja of Jaipur, in the form of massive gold bullions.
Jan Ban is the key attraction of this fort which is renowned cannon.This Cannon was Named as “Jai Bana”which means “Arrow of Victory”. ‘Jivana Cannon’ is one of the greatest cannon on wheels in this fort and also it covers a huge palace complex. This cannon was made in the year 1720, when the Jaipur city is under the rule of Maharaja Sawai Jai Singh II. This cannon is placed on a high 4 wheeled carriage. Diameters of the front wheel are 2.74 m and the back wheels are 1.37m in diameter. It has 11 inches of diameter, its 20 feet in height and 2 inches long barrel which weighs 50 tons. The designs of flower petals, an elephant, and peacocks and a couple of ducks are engraved on the front, tilt, centre and posterior of the barrel, respectively.
Several metals have been used while making this cannon which include iron, steel, gold, silver and brass. If we want to change the direction of the cannon from right to left or vice- versa then we need 12 elephants for doing this task as it is very heavy. If we want to move the cannon with carriage itself then we will 40 elephants for performing this task.
The giant wheels of the cannon with the teeth measuring 9 inches for rotation of the holes. The length of each cutter is 9 feet. The gear systems were rotated by four pairs of bulls and the gears were made up of wooden crossbars which were connected to the central beam. For lifting the barrel two thick rings were fixed on it. It is still lying in the Jaigarh Fort. In 1720, the Jaivana canon was fired only once by JaiSingh II as a test fire. Mughal Emperor Muhammad Shah attended the event of ousting of the power from the Sayyid Brothers. A long elevated screw of 30.6 inches was used for lowering and raising the barrel. The length of the cannon is 31 feet and the barrel is 20 feet long. It took four elephants to rotate it around the axis. Eight elephants were required to raise and lower the barrel which was tightened by a eight feet long screw. It takes a load of 220 lbs or 100 kgs of gun powder and the shot ball weighs around 50 kg which is eaqual to 110 lbs. In the museum of Jaigarh Fort, one of the shot cannon is placed for the display. The cannon can fire to range of 35 kms.